A growing number of civil society organisations and news organisations produce software. This document collects tips to tackle two common challenges they face:
Sharing your code with others in such a way that it actually invites collaboration, rather than just ‘token’ open source code.
Reducing the risk from contractors that work on a project for some time and then move on to other clients. It’s important that the code they leave behind can be understood and extended by others.
Both issues can be addressed by following the (mostly non-technical) strategies laid out here.
Note: This is a collaborative document. Please feel free to submit pull requests to suggest changes. The goal of this document is to be as concise and understandable as possible. If you see any fluff, help cut it away!
Avoid not invented here syndrome. Another group may have already solved the problem you’re dealing with, so spend some time on research. If their solution looks overly complex, think twice: while this may be a sign of bad code, it could also be an indicator that their project is mature and has learned to deal with many different concerns.
It’s usually cheaper to adapt than to re-build. Your idea is probably special to you, but experience shows that starting a new project has a fixed cost that will eat up a significant part of your budget.
When you release code, think about separating tools from projects. For example, in a crowd-sourcing effort, you might want to separate the mechanism you use to collect data (e.g. text messages) from the code that is specific to the topic of your project (e.g. potholes).
Keep your code up to date. You might want to surprise the world with a big, new feature sometimes, but that should not be a reason to stop sharing your code until that new thing is done. Big, infrequent updates kill collaboration.
When people announce their intention to contribute to your project, invite them to submit some code as early as possible. Save discussions on product design and general strategy for later.
When people contribute, try to include their changes, even if they’re not on your roadmap. Take time to review the code, and if it needs improvement, guide contributors through making the necessary changes.
An open source license. Explicitly defining the terms of re-use is
the key to opening your software. Never write your own licenses, but
instead use either the GPL or an MIT/BSD license (here’s a comparison), and place the chosen text in a
Set up a public code repository. Code sharing platforms like GitHub enable developers to work together easily. They improve your internal development workflow as well.
README file. This introduces a user to your code base and should
answer basic questions: what does your project do? What different
components are there, how do they fit together? How would do you
install the software? What would a typical workflow look like? How
can people contact you, report errors or contribute to the project?
README is the first place where potential contributors will
learn about your project. It is not a piece of advertising or a
donor-facing document. Invest some time in having it proof-read
by technical people who don’t know your project.
Detailed installation instructions. Most web platforms aren’t easy
to install, and many of the intricacies of setting up your project may
fall out of the scope of the
README file. Make sure you provide
detailed instructions on what other software is required to run your
project and steps to take in a separate
An issue tracker. This not only lets users report problems, but it also creates a publicly visible list of what features you are planning and what problems you already know about. If you’re using GitHub, every repository has its own issue tracker set up automaticaly.
Make sure you keep your issues up to date, and written in English. To help potential contributors, mark issues which are easy to tackle and well-contained with a special tag or label. If someone offers to contribute, you can point them at these low-hanging fruit.
Mailing lists. Set up a mailing list for developers, and invite anyone who is contributing code to subscribe to that list and join the discussion. For larger projects with multiple audiences it may be worthwhile to set up a second mailing list for non-technical discussions or release announcements.
Testing saves lives. Using automated testing helps you to check that nothing has broken before you release code. It also helps your contributors feel confident they have not broken code they are less familiar with.
Provide a demo system. If you’re providing a read/write API, it can be useful for developers to have a testing instance that does not modify live data.
Supply testing data and database migrations. To get people started with your application, it’s very useful to provide some realisitc test data, perhaps even a part of the data used in the live service.
Database migrations are small programs that help you transform the structure the application’s data model changes over time. This makes it easy for other users to follow along when you make these types of changes.
Monitoring and logging. You shouldn’t rely on kind strangers to notify you when your app is down. Monitoring can be done using tools like Nagios.
Learn about 12 Factors. The website lists factors that are significant for those offering web services to the general public.